Genetic defects in the hexosamine and sialic acid biosynthesis pathway
SourceBiochimica et Biophysica Acta-General Subjects, 1860, 8, (2016), pp. 1640-1654
Article / Letter to editor
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Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-General Subjects
SubjectRadboudumc 3: Disorders of movement DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience; Radboudumc 3: Disorders of movement RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
BACKGROUND: Congenital disorders of glycosylation are caused by defects in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids. Classically, gene defects with multisystem disease have been identified in the ubiquitously expressed glycosyltransferases required for protein N-glycosylation. An increasing number of defects are being described in sugar supply pathways for protein glycosylation with tissue-restricted clinical symptoms. SCOPE OF REVIEW: In this review, we address the hexosamine and sialic acid biosynthesis pathways in sugar metabolism. GFPT1, PGM3 and GNE are essential for synthesis of nucleotide sugars uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and cytidine-5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-sialic acid) as precursors for various glycosylation pathways. Defects in these enzymes result in contrasting clinical phenotypes of congenital myasthenia, immunodeficiency or adult-onset myopathy, respectively. We therefore discuss the biochemical mechanisms of known genetic defects in the hexosamine and CMP-sialic acid synthesis pathway in relation to the clinical phenotypes. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Both UDP-GlcNAc and CMP-sialic acid are important precursors for diverse protein glycosylation reactions and for conversion into other nucleotide-sugars. Defects in the synthesis of these nucleotide sugars might affect a wide range of protein glycosylation reactions. Involvement of multiple glycosylation pathways might contribute to disease phenotype, but the currently available biochemical information on sugar metabolism is insufficient to understand why defects in these pathways present with tissue-specific phenotypes. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Future research on the interplay between sugar metabolism and different glycosylation pathways in a tissue- and cell-specific manner will contribute to elucidation of disease mechanisms and will create new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc.
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