[Web-based interventions targeting cardiovascular risk factors in older people; a systematic review and meta-analysis]
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 160, 0, (2016), pp. D581, article D581
Article / Letter to editor
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Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde
SubjectRadboudumc 3: Disorders of movement DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether web-based interventions for cardiovascular risk factor management reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in older people. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHOD: Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library and CINAHL were systematically searched from January 1995 to 3 November 2014. We included all randomised controlled trials for web-based interventions targeting cardiovascular risk factors in populations with a mean age of 50 and older. The outcome measures were cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, HbA1c, LDL cholesterol, weight, smoking status and physical activity) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. We used random-effects models to pool the results of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 57 studies (19,862 participants) fulfilled eligibility criteria, and 47 of these were suitable for meta-analysis. We found a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (-2.66 mmHg, 95% CI -3.81 to -1.52), diastolic blood pressure (-1.26 mmHg, 95% CI -1.92 to -0.60), HbA1c level (-0.13%, 95% CI -0.22 to -0.05), LDL cholesterol level (-0.06 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.01), weight (-1.34 kg, 95% CI -1.91 to -0.77), and an increase in physical activity (standardized mean difference 0.25, 95% CI 0.10-0.39) in the intervention group when compared with the control group. Treatment effects were more pronounced in studies of short duration (< 12 months) and when combining the web-based intervention with human support by a health care professional. No difference in the incidence of cardiovascular disease was found between groups. CONCLUSION: Web-based interventions have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular risk profile, but this effect is modest and declines with time. Currently, there is insufficient evidence that this can prevent cardiovascular disease. A focus on long-term effects, effect-sustainability and clinical endpoints is recommended for future studies.
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