High LDL levels lead to increased synovial inflammation and accelerated ectopic bone formation during experimental osteoarthritis
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SourceOsteoarthritis and Cartilage, 24, 5, (2016), pp. 844-855
Article / Letter to editor
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Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
SubjectRadboudumc 5: Inflammatory diseases RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
OBJECTIVE: A relation between osteoarthritis (OA) and increased cholesterol levels is apparent. In the present study we investigate OA pathology in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-)(/-) mice with and without a cholesterol-rich diet, a model for high systemic low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels independent of weight. METHOD: Wild type (WT), Apoe(-)(/-), S100a9(-/-) and Apoe(-)(/-)S100a9(-/-) mice (C57BL/6 background) received a standard or cholesterol-rich diet. Experimental OA was induced by intra-articular injection of collagenase and animals were sacrificed at day 10 and day 36. RESULTS: Although minimal differences in cartilage damage were found between the WT and ApoE(-)(/-) mice, increased synovial thickening was found in the latter. Thirty-six days after OA-induction, ApoE(-)(/-) mice on a standard diet showed increased ectopic bone formation, particularly at the medial collateral ligament, compared with OA in WT mice. Furthermore, a significant increase in synovial gene expression of both S100a8 and S100a9 and S100A8/S100A9 protein levels was found in ApoE(-)(/-) mice, suggesting an activated inflammatory status of synovial cells. In both ApoE(-)(/-) and WT mice, addition of a cholesterol-rich diet resulted in excessive bone formation in the medial collateral ligament at late-time-point OA. Interestingly, at the early time point, proteoglycan deposition was already significantly increased in ApoE(-)(/-) mice compared with WT mice. Mice deficient for both ApoE and S100a9 also showed increased ectopic bone formation, but not synovial activation, suggesting a role for S100-proteins in cholesterol-mediated synovial activation. CONCLUSIONS: Increased cholesterol levels strongly elevate synovial activation and ectopic bone formation in early-stage collagenase-induced OA.
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