Pharmacological treatment in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) dependence: Detoxification and relapse prevention
until further notice
Number of pages
SourceCNS Drugs, 31, 1, (2017), pp. 51-64
Article / Letter to editor
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SW OZ BSI KLP
SubjectExperimental Psychopathology and Treatment; Radboudumc 13: Stress-related disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
The misuse of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) for recreational purposes has resulted in an increase in GHB-related problems such as intoxications, dependence and withdrawal in several countries in Europe, Australia and the US over the last decade. However, prevalence rates of misuse of GHB and its precursor, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), are still relatively low. In this qualitative review paper, after a short introduction on the pharmacology of GHB/GBL, followed by a summary of the epidemiology of GHB abuse, an overview of GHB dependence syndrome and GHB/GBL withdrawal syndrome is provided. Finally, the existing literature on management of GHB detoxification, both planned and unplanned, as well as the available management of GHB withdrawal syndrome, is summarized. Although no systematic studies on detoxification and management of withdrawal have been performed to date, general recommendations are given on pharmacological treatment and preferred treatment setting.
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