Dominant cystoid macular dystrophy
SourceOphthalmology, 122, 1, (2015), pp. 180-191
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 12: Sensory disorders RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 12: Sensory disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and long-term follow-up in patients with autosomal dominant cystoid macular dystrophy (DCMD). DESIGN: Retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-seven patients with DCMD. METHODS: Extensive ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity (VA), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), color vision testing, dark adaptation testing, full-field electroretinography (ERG), and electro-oculography (EOG). Blood samples were obtained for DNA extraction and subsequent haplotype analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at onset, VA, fundus appearance, and characteristics on FA, FAF, OCT, ERG, and EOG. RESULTS: Cystoid fluid collections (CFCs) were the first retinal abnormalities detectable in DCMD, developing during childhood. At long-term follow-up, the CFCs decreased in size and number, and eventually disappeared with concurrent development of progressive chorioretinal atrophy and hyperpigmented deposits in the posterior pole. Dominant cystoid macular dystrophy could be classified into 3 stages, based on characteristics on ophthalmoscopy, FAF, FA, and OCT, as well as on results of electrophysiologic analysis. The staging system correlated with age and VA. In stage 1 DCMD (20 patients; 22%), patients generally were younger than 20 years and had CFCs with fine folding of the internal limiting membrane and mild pigment changes. In stage 2 DCMD (48 patients; 52%), the CFCs tended to decrease in size, and moderate macular chorioretinal atrophy developed. Patients with stage 3 DCMD (24 patients; 26%) generally were older than 50 years and showed profound chorioretinal atrophy, as well as coarse hyperpigmented deposits in the posterior pole. Most patients were (highly) hyperopic (72 patients; 92%). All DCMD patients shared the disease haplotype at the DCMD locus at 7p15.3. CONCLUSIONS: Dominant cystoid macular dystrophy is a progressive retinal dystrophy, characterized primarily by early-onset cystoid fluid collections in the neuroretina, which distinguishes this disorder from other retinal dystrophies. The phenotypic range of DCMD can be classified into 3 stages. The genetic locus for this retinal dystrophy has been mapped to 7p15.3, but the involved gene is currently unknown.
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