Diminished Impact of Ethnicity as a Risk Factor for Chronic Kidney Disease in the Current HIV Treatment Era
until further notice
SourceThe Journal of Infectious Diseases, 212, 2, (2015), pp. 264-274
Article / Letter to editor
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The Journal of Infectious Diseases
SubjectRadboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important comorbidity during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Historically, HIV-associated nephropathy has been the predominant cause of CKD and has primarily been observed in people of African ancestry. This study aims to investigate the role of ethnicity in relation to CKD risk in recent years. METHODS: Analyses were performed including 16 836 patients from the Dutch AIDS Therapy Evaluation in the Netherlands (ATHENA) cohort. Baseline was defined as the first available creatinine level measurement after 1 January 2007; CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The associations between ethnicity and both prevalent CKD at baseline and incident CKD during follow-up were analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of baseline CKD was 2.7% (460 of 16 836 patients). Birth in a sub-Saharan African country (hereafter, "SSA origin") was significantly associated with baseline CKD (adjusted odds ratio 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.13). During follow-up (median duration, 4.7 years; interquartile range, 2.4-5.2), the rate of incident CKD was 6.0 events per 1000 person-years. The risk of newly developing CKD was similar between patients of SSA origin and those born in Western Europe, Australia, or New Zealand (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, .63-1.59). CONCLUSIONS: Among HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands, being of SSA origin was associated with a higher baseline CKD prevalence but had no impact on newly developing CKD over time. This suggests a shift in the etiology of CKD from HIV-associated nephropathy toward other etiologies.
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