Cell tracking using (19)F magnetic resonance imaging: Technical aspects and challenges towards clinical applications
SourceEuropean Radiology, 25, 3, (2015), pp. 726-735
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 15: Urological cancers RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 19: Nanomedicine RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 2: Cancer development and immune defence RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 7: Neurodevelopmental disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
(19)F MRI is emerging as a new imaging technique for cell tracking. It is particularly attractive because of its potential for direct and precise cell quantification. The most important challenge towards in vivo applications is the sensitivity of the technique, i.e. the detection limit in a reasonable imaging time. Optimal sensitivity can be achieved with dedicated (19)F compounds together with specifically adapted hardware and acquisition methods. In this paper we introduce the (19)F MRI technique focusing on these key sensitivity issues and review the state-of-the-art of (19)F MRI and developments towards its clinical use. We calculate (19)F detection limits reported in preclinical cell and clinical (19)F drug studies in terms of tissue concentration in a 1 cm(3) voxel, as an alternate way to compare detection limits. We estimate that a tissue concentration of a few millimoles per litre (mM) of (19)F is required for a human study at a resolution of 1 cm(3). Key Points * Direct and precise cell quantification can be done by (19) F MRI. * (19) F MRI sensitivity is the most important parameter towards clinical application. * A number of (technical) considerations can improve sensitivity significantly. * A few millimoles per litre (mM) of (19) F per voxel is required for adequate detection.
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