Reversal strategies for vitamin K antagonists in acute intracerebral hemorrhage
SourceAnnals of Neurology, 78, 1, (2015), pp. 54-62
Article / Letter to editor
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Annals of Neurology
SubjectRadboudumc 3: Disorders of movement DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
OBJECTIVE: There is little evidence to guide treatment strategies for intracerebral hemorrhage on vitamin K antagonists (VKA-ICH). Treatments utilized in clinical practice include fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC). Our aim was to compare case fatality with different reversal strategies. METHODS: We pooled individual ICH patient data from 16 stroke registries in 9 countries (n = 10 282), of whom 1,797 (17%) were on VKA. After excluding 250 patients with international normalized ratio < 1.3 and/or missing data required for analysis, we compared all-cause 30-day case fatality using Cox regression. RESULTS: We included 1,547 patients treated with FFP (n = 377, 24%), PCC (n = 585, 38%), both (n = 131, 9%), or neither (n = 454, 29%). The crude case fatality and adjusted hazard ratio (HR) were highest with no reversal (61.7%, HR = 2.540, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.784-3.616, p < 0.001), followed by FFP alone (45.6%, HR = 1.344, 95% CI = 0.934-1.934, p = 0.112), then PCC alone (37.3%, HR = 1.445, 95% CI = 1.014-2.058, p = 0.041), compared to reversal with both FFP and PCC (27.8%, reference). Outcomes with PCC versus FFP were similar (HR = 1.075, 95% CI = 0.874-1.323, p = 0.492); 4-factor PCC (n = 441) was associated with higher case fatality compared to 3-factor PCC (n = 144, HR = 1.441, 95% CI = 1.041-1.995, p = 0.027). INTERPRETATION: The combination of FFP and PCC might be associated with the lowest case fatality in reversal of VKA-ICH, and FFP may be equivalent to PCC. Randomized controlled trials with functional outcomes are needed to establish the most effective treatment. Ann Neurol 2015;78:54-62.
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