Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Activity Evaluation of TMX-101 in a Multicenter Phase 1 Study in Patients With Papillary Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer
SourceClinical Genitourinary Cancer, 13, 3, (2015), pp. 204-209.e2
Article / Letter to editor
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Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
SubjectRadboudumc 15: Urological cancers RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a strong tendency to recur despite adjuvant instillations. TMX-101 is a new liquid form of imiquimod for intravesical instillation and has activity in vitro against urothelial carcinoma. The purpose was to analyze the activity of TMX-101 in low-grade NMIBC. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics and adverse events were evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter, prospective phase 1 trial in 7 patients with low-grade NMIBC was conducted. All patients underwent a marker lesion transurethral resection of the bladder tumor and 6 weekly instillations with TMX-101 0.2% or 0.4%. Cystoscopy 2 to 4 weeks after the last instillation evaluated the effect of TMX-101. RESULTS: The effective biologic dose (EBD = complete response [CR] in > 2 patients) could not be defined because none of the patients experienced CR. Maximum plasma concentration was 75.1 ng/mL in the 0.4% dose group. No drug accumulation was observed. In the pharmacodynamic analysis, urinary interleukin 1 receptor agonist (IL-1ra) represents the most sensitive and uniform response after TMX-101 instillation. A total of 87.0% reported at least 1 adverse event. All events were of grade 2 severity or less (Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events version 4.02). No clinically significant changes in laboratory parameters or vital signs were observed during or after treatment. CONCLUSION: Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) agonists are effective in urothelial carcinoma in preclinical research. The EBD in this phase 1 study could not be determined because no patient experienced CR. IL-1ra could be valuable as a urinary biomarker in future developments. The safety of TMX-101 has been reconfirmed. New doses, other schedules, and NMIBC subgroups should be tested to define the EBD. A pilot study in carcinoma-in-situ patients is currently ongoing and results are expected shortly.
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