Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Optimal Sampling Strategies for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Rifampin in Patients with Tuberculosis
SourceAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 59, 8, (2015), pp. 4907-4913
Article / Letter to editor
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Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
SubjectRadboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
Rifampin, together with isoniazid, has been the backbone of the current first-line treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) to the MIC is the best predictive pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameter for determinations of efficacy. The objective of this study was to develop an optimal sampling procedure based on population pharmacokinetics to predict AUC0-24 values. Patients received rifampin orally once daily as part of their anti-TB treatment. A one-compartmental pharmacokinetic population model with first-order absorption and lag time was developed using observed rifampin plasma concentrations from 55 patients. The population pharmacokinetic model was developed using an iterative two-stage Bayesian procedure and was cross-validated. Optimal sampling strategies were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation (n = 1,000). The geometric mean AUC0-24 value was 41.5 (range, 13.5 to 117) mg . h/liter. The median time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax) was 2.2 h, ranging from 0.4 to 5.7 h. This wide range indicates that obtaining a concentration level at 2 h (C2) would not capture the peak concentration in a large proportion of the population. Optimal sampling using concentrations at 1, 3, and 8 h postdosing was considered clinically suitable with an r(2) value of 0.96, a root mean squared error value of 13.2%, and a prediction bias value of -0.4%. This study showed that the rifampin AUC0-24 in TB patients can be predicted with acceptable accuracy and precision using the developed population pharmacokinetic model with optimal sampling at time points 1, 3, and 8 h.
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