Main pulmonary artery area limits exercise capacity in patients long-term after arterial switch operation
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SourceJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 150, 4, (2015), pp. 918-925
Article / Letter to editor
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Paediatrics - OUD tm 2017
Cardio Thoracic Surgery
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
SubjectRadboudumc 16: Vascular damage RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
OBJECTIVES: Despite excellent survival in patients after the arterial switch operation, reintervention is frequently required and exercise capacity is decreased in a substantial number of patients. This study relates right-sided imaging features in patients long-term after the arterial switch operation to exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency to investigate which lesions are functionally important. METHODS: Patients operated in the UMC Utrecht, the Netherlands (1976-2001) and healthy controls underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiopulmonary exercise testing within 1 week. We measured main, left, and right pulmonary artery cross-sectional areas, pulmonary blood flow distribution, peak oxygen uptake, and minute ventilation relative to carbon dioxide elimination. RESULTS: A total of 71 patients (median age, 20 [12-35] years, 73% were male) and 21 healthy controls (median age, 26 [21-35] years, 48% were male) were included. Main, left, and right pulmonary artery areas were decreased compared with controls (190 vs 269 mm(2)/m(2), 59 vs 157 mm(2)/m(2), 98 vs 139 mm(2)/m(2), respectively, all P < .001); however, pulmonary blood flow distribution was comparable (P = .722). Peak oxygen uptake and minute ventilation relative to carbon dioxide elimination were 88% +/- 20% and 23.7 +/- 3.8, respectively, with 42% and 1% of patients demonstrating abnormal results (</=84% and >/=34, respectively). The main pulmonary artery area significantly correlated with peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.401, P = .001) and pulmonary blood flow distribution with minute ventilation relative to carbon dioxide elimination (r = -0.329, P = .008). Subanalysis (<18, 18-25, >25 years) showed that the main pulmonary artery area was smaller in older age groups. In multivariable analysis, the main pulmonary artery area was independently associated with peak oxygen uptake (P = .032). CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients after the arterial switch operation, narrowing of the main pulmonary artery is a common finding and is the main determinant of limitation in functional capacity, rather than pulmonary branch stenosis.
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