Cerebral aspects of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a review.
SourceNeonatology, 104, 2, (2013), pp. 95-103
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectIGMD 1: Functional imaging
Background: Neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a lifesaving therapeutic approach in newborns suffering from severe, but potentially reversible, respiratory insufficiency, mostly complicated by neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension. However, cerebral damage, intracerebral hemorrhage as well as ischemia belong to the most devastating complications of ECMO. Objectives: The objectives are to give insights into what is known from the literature concerning cerebral damage related to neonatal ECMO treatment for pulmonary reasons. Methods: A short introduction to ECMO indications and technical aspects of ECMO are provided for a better understanding of the process. The remainder of this review focuses on outcome and especially on (potential) risk factors for cerebral hemorrhage and ischemia during ECMO treatment. Results: Although neonatal ECMO treatment shows improved outcome compared to conservative treatment in cases of severe respiratory insufficiency, it is related to disturbances in various aspects of neurodevelopmental outcome. Risk factors for cerebral damage are either related to the patient's disease, EMCO treatment itself, or a combination of both. Conclusion: It is of ongoing importance to further understand pathophysiological mechanisms resulting in cerebral hemorrhage and ischemia due to ECMO and to develop neuroprotective strategies and approaches.
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