Adenoviral overexpression of Smad-7 and Smad-6 differentially regulates TGF-beta-mediated chondrocyte proliferation and proteoglycan synthesis.
SourceOsteoarthritis and Cartilage, 11, 11, (2003), pp. 773-782
Article / Letter to editor
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Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
SubjectUMCN 1.4: Immunotherapy, gene therapy and transplantation; UMCN 4.2: Chronic inflammation and autoimmunity; UMCN 4.3: Tissue engineering and reconstructive surgery
OBJECTIVE: To assess if various biological responses to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in chondrocytes are differentially regulated by Smad-6 and Smad-7. DESIGN: Adenoviral overexpression of Smad-6 or -7 mRNA in a chondrocyte cell line was determined via semi-quantitative RT-PCR and protein overexpression was studied by immunocytochemistry. Furthermore, the effect of Smad-6 and -7 overexpression on TGF-beta-induced PAI-1 and aggrecan mRNA upregulation was studied via quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of Smad-6 and -7 overexpression on TGF-beta-induced chondrocyte proliferation was studied via DNA quantification, whereas TGF-beta-induced proteoglycan (PG) synthesis was studied by 35S-sulfate incorporation. RESULTS: Adenoviral transfection of chondrocytes with Smad-6 and -7 resulted in strong upregulation of Smad-6 and -7 mRNA levels, respectively. Immunocytochemistry showed overexpression of Smad-6 and -7 proteins in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Smad-6 overexpression significantly inhibited TGF-beta-stimulated chondrocyte proliferation, although proliferation was not completely abolished. Smad-7 overexpression, however, completely antagonized the TGF-beta effect on proliferation. Smad-6 overexpression had no effect on TGF-beta-induced PAI-1 expression, while overexpression of Smad-7 completely blocked this TGF-beta effect. Additionally, overexpression of Smad-7, but not Smad-6, totally prevented TGF-beta-induced PG synthesis on the mRNA and protein levels. CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral transfection of chondrocytes with Smad-6 and -7 resulted in strong upregulation of Smad-6 and -7 mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, overexpression of Smad-7 in chondrocytes totally inhibited important TGF-beta-mediated biological responses such as proliferation and PG synthesis, while overexpressed Smad-6 had no or only a partial inhibitory effect on TGF-beta activity. We conclude that in chondrocytes distinct TGF-beta activities are differentially regulated by Smad-6 and Smad-7.
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