The small GTPase Rap1 is required for Mn(2+)- and antibody-induced LFA-1- and VLA-4-mediated cell adhesion.
SourceJournal of Biological Chemistry, 277, 33, (2002), pp. 29468-76
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Biological Chemistry
In T-lymphocytes the Ras-like small GTPase Rap1 plays an essential role in stimulus-induced inside-out activation of integrin LFA-1 (alpha(L)beta(2)) and VLA-4 (alpha(4)beta(1)). Here we show that Rap1 is also involved in the direct activation of these integrins by divalent cations or activating antibodies. Inhibition of Rap1 either by Rap GTPase-activating protein (RapGAP) or the Rap1 binding domain of RalGDS abolished both Mn(2+)- and KIM185 (anti-LFA-1)-induced LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Mn(2+)- and TS2/16 (anti-VLA-4)-induced VLA-4-mediated adhesion were inhibited as well. Interestingly, both Mn(2+), KIM185 and TS2/16 failed to induce elevated levels of Rap1GTP. These findings indicate that available levels of GTP-bound Rap1 are required for the direct activation of LFA-1 and VLA-4. Pharmacological inhibition studies demonstrated that both Mn(2+)- and KIM185-induced adhesion as well as Rap1-induced adhesion require intracellular calcium but not signaling activity of the MEK-ERK pathway. Moreover, functional calmodulin signaling was shown to be a prerequisite for Rap1-induced adhesion. From these results we conclude that in addition to stimulus-induced inside-out activation of integrins, active Rap1 is required for cell adhesion induced by direct activation of integrins LFA-1 and VLA-4. We suggest that Rap1 determines the functional availability of integrins for productive binding to integrin ligands.
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