Combating hooliganism in the Netherlands: An evaluation of measures to combat hooliganism with longitudinal registration data
Number of pages
SourceEuropean Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 21, 1, (2015), pp. 83-97
Article / Letter to editor
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Onderzoekcentrum voor Staat en Recht
SW OZ RSCR SOC
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
SubjectPrinciples of Public Law; Inequality, cohesion and modernization; Grondslagen van het publiekrecht; Ongelijkheid, cohesie en modernisering
Football hooliganism is an undesirable but widespread phenomenon. In this contribution, a range of measures to combat hooliganism in the Netherlands is evaluated. We use (logistic) multi-level models to analyze data on hooliganism from the Dutch Football Vandalism Information Office covering 3431 matches in the period 2006–2011. We controlled rigorously for (un)observed heterogeneity between matches and for differences in expected risk over time. Football matches played early during the day and in daylight are less likely to witness incidents of hooliganism than matches played at a later time and in darkness. The politically sensitive mandatory transport measure decreases the risk of incidents as well. On the other hand, we could not find any evidence for the effectiveness of the mandatory home-match cards or mandatory away-match cards. An alcohol prohibition within the stadium causes a waterbed effect, increasing incidents outside the stadium.
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