Evaluation of various seeding techniques for culturing osteogenic cells on titanium fiber mesh.
SourceTissue Engineering, 9, 2, (2003), pp. 315-325
Article / Letter to editor
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Periodontology and Biomaterials
SubjectUMCN 4.3: Tissue engineering and reconstructive surgery
The objective of the present study was to learn more about the effect of seeding and loading techniques on the osteogenic differentiation in vitro of rat bone marrow cells into titanium fiber mesh. This material was used as received or subjected to glow discharge treatment (RFGD). The seeding methods that were used included a so-called droplet, cell suspension (high and low cell density), and rotating plate method. Osteogenic cells were cultured for 4, 8, and 16 days into titanium fiber mesh. DNA, osteocalcin, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, and calcium measurements were used to determine cellular proliferation and differentiation. DNA analysis of the differently seeded specimens showed that proliferation proceeded faster in the first versus second run for droplet and cell suspension samples. No clear and distinct additional effect was found when RFGD treatment was used. Statistical analyses revealed that high cell density and low rotational speed resulted always in a significantly higher DNA content. Calcium measurements and osteocalcin analysis showed that using high cell densities during inoculation of the scaffolds prevented the occurrence of differences between experimental runs. SEM examination showed that for droplet and cell suspension samples cells were present at only one side of the mesh. The mesh side where the cell sheet was observed depended on the additional use of glow discharge treatment. On these materials, the cells had penetrated through the meshes and formed a cell sheet at the bottom side. When rotation was used, no cell sheet was formed and cells had invaded the meshes and were growing around the titanium fibers. On the basis of our results, we conclude that (1). titanium fiber mesh is indeed suitable to support the osteogenic expression of bone marrow cells, and (2). changing the initial cell density as well as the use of dynamic seeding methods can influence the osteogenic capacity of the scaffold.
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