Hexaminolevulinate blue-light cystoscopy in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: review of the clinical evidence and consensus statement on appropriate use in the USA
SourceNature Reviews. Urology, 11, 10, (2014), pp. 589-596
Article / Letter to editor
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Nature Reviews. Urology
SubjectRadboudumc 15: Urological cancers RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
Hexaminolevulinate (HAL) is a tumour photosensitizer that is used in combination with blue-light cystoscopy (BLC) as an adjunct to white-light cystoscopy (WLC) in the diagnosis and management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Since being licensed in Europe in 2005, HAL has been used in >200,000 procedures, with consistent evidence that it improves detection compared with WLC alone. Current data support an additional role in the reduction of recurrence of NMIBC. Since the approval of HAL by the FDA in 2010, experience of HAL-BLC in the USA continues to expand. To define areas of need and to identify the benefits of HAL-BLC in clinical practice, a focus group of expert urologists specializing in the management of patients with bladder cancer convened to review the clinical evidence, share their experiences and reach a consensus regarding the optimal use of HAL-BLC in the USA. The focus group concluded that HAL-BLC should be considered for initial assessment of NMIBC, surveillance for recurrent tumours, diagnosis in patients with positive urine cytology but negative WLC findings, and for tumour staging.
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