Environmental NGOs and the Bio-safety Protocol. A case study on political influence.
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SourceEuropean Environment: the Journal of European Environmental Policy (European Research Press), 13, 1, (2003), pp. 19-33
Article / Letter to editor
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European Environment: the Journal of European Environmental Policy (European Research Press)
It is not only governments which play an important role in securing international agreements, but environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) as well. This is reflected in the ever-growing body of literature concerning this topic. This article deals with the political influence of ENGOs on the Biosafety Protocol, a protocol linked to the UNEP Convention on Biological Diversity. It concludes that these organizations did have an impact on the final agreement that was made, with one example being the inclusion of the precautionary principle in the final protocol (although not exclusively determined by ENGOs). They were particularly able to influence policy outcomes by lobbying government delegates, by co-operating with developing countries and by mobilizing public pressure. With regard to the time frame of the biosafety negotiations, ENGOs succeeded in exercising most of their influence in the so-called ‘pre-negotiation’ phase. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment.
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