alpha1-Antitrypsin therapy downregulates toll-like receptor-induced IL-1beta responses in monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells and may improve islet function in recently diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes
SourceJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 99, 8, (2014), pp. E1418-26
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
SubjectRadboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
CONTEXT: Recent studies have implicated proinflammatory responses in the mechanism of type 1 diabetes (T1D). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the safety and effects of therapy with the anti-inflammatory serum protein alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) on islet function and innate immunity in recent-onset patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was an open-label phase I trial at the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver. PATIENTS: Twelve recently diagnosed subjects with T1D with detectable C-peptides were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Eight consecutive weekly infusions of 80 mg/kg of AAT were given. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PATIENTS were monitored for adverse effects of AAT therapy, C-peptide responses to a mixed-meal tolerance test, and toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced cellular IL-1beta in monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). RESULTS: No adverse effects were detected. AAT led to increased, unchanged, or moderately reduced levels of C-peptide responses compared with baseline in 5 patients. The total content of TLR4-induced cellular IL-1beta in monocytes at 12 months after AAT therapy was 3-fold reduced compared with baseline (P < .05). Furthermore, at baseline, 82% of monocytes produced IL-1beta, but at 12 months after therapy, the level decreased to 42%. Similar reductions were observed using TLR7/8 and TLR3 agonists in monocytes and mDCs. Unexpectedly, the reduction in cellular IL-1beta was observed only 9 and 12 months after treatment but not in untreated diabetics. Improved beta-cell function in the 5 AAT-treated individuals correlated with lower frequencies of monocytes and mDCs producing IL-1beta compared with subjects without improvement of islet function (P < .04 and P < .02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that AAT may have a beneficial effect on T1D in recently diagnosed patients that is associated with downmodulation of IL-1beta.
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