Tumor Microenvironmental Changes Induced by the Sulfamate Carbonic Anhydrase IX Inhibitor S4 in a Laryngeal Tumor Model
SourcePLoS One, 9, 9, (2014), article e108068
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 17: Women's cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 9: Rare cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) plays a pivotal role in pH homeostasis, which is essential for tumor cell survival. We examined the effect of the CAIX inhibitor 4-(3'(3'',5''-dimethylphenyl)-ureido)phenyl sulfamate (S4) on the tumor microenvironment in a laryngeal tumor model by analyzing proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, hypoxia, metabolism and CAIX ectodomain shedding. METHODS: SCCNij202 tumor bearing-mice were treated with S4 for 1, 3 or 5 days. CAIX ectodomain shedding was measured in the serum after therapy. Effects on tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, hypoxia (pimonidazole) and CAIX were investigated with quantitative immunohistochemistry. Metabolic transporters and enzymes were quantified with qPCR. RESULTS: CAIX ectodomain shedding decreased after treatment with S4 (p<0.01). S4 therapy did neither influence tumor cell proliferation nor the amount of apoptosis and necrosis. Hypoxia (pimonidazole) and CAIX expression were also not affected by S4. CHOP and MMP9 mRNA as a reference of intracellular pH did not change upon treatment with S4. Compensatory mechanisms of pH homeostasis at the mRNA level were not observed. CONCLUSION: As the clinical and biological meaning of the decrease in CAIX ectodomain shedding after S4 therapy is not clear, studies are required to elucidate whether the CAIX ectodomain has a paracrine or autocrine signaling function in cancer biology. S4 did not influence the amount of proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis and hypoxia. Therefore, it is unlikely that S4 can be used as single agent to influence tumor cell kill and proliferation, and to target primary tumor growth.
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