TGF-ss induces Lysyl hydroxylase 2b in human synovial osteoarthritic fibroblasts through ALK5 signaling
SourceCell and Tissue Research, 355, 1, (2014), pp. 163-171
Article / Letter to editor
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Cell and Tissue Research
SubjectRadboudumc 5: Inflammatory diseases RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
Lysyl hydroxylase 2b (LH2b) is known to increase pyridinoline cross-links, making collagen less susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Previously, we observed a relationship between LH2b and osteoarthritis-related fibrosis in murine knee joint. For this study, we investigate if transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ss) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) regulate procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) (gene encoding LH2b) and LH2b expression differently in osteoarthritic human synovial fibroblasts (hSF). Furthermore, we investigate via which TGF-ss route (Smad2/3P or Smad1/5/8P) LH2b is regulated, to explore options to inhibit LH2b during fibrosis. To answer these questions, fibroblasts were isolated from knee joints of osteoarthritis patients. The hSF were stimulated with TGF-ss with or without a kinase inhibitor of ALK4/5/7 (SB-505124) or ALK1/2/3/6 (dorsomorphin). TGF-ss, CTGF, constitutively active (ca)ALK1 and caALK5 were adenovirally overexpressed in hSF. The gene expression levels of PLOD1/2/3, CTGF and COL1A1 were analyzed with Q-PCR. LH2 protein levels were determined with western blot. As expected, TGF-ss induced PLOD2/LH2 expression in hSF, whereas CTGF did not. PLOD1 and PLOD3 were not affected by either TGF-ss or CTGF. SB-505124 prevented the induction of TGF-ss-induced PLOD2, CTGF and COL1A1. Surprisingly, dorsomorphin completely blocked the induction of CTGF and COL1A1, whereas TGF-ss-induced PLOD2 was only slightly reduced. Overexpression of caALK5 in osteoarthritic hSF significantly induced PLOD2/LH2 expression, whereas caALK1 had no effect. We showed, in osteoarthritic hSF, that TGF-ss induced PLOD2/LH2 via ALK5 Smad2/3P. This elevation of LH2b in osteoarthritic hSF makes LH2b an interesting target to interfere with osteoarthritis-related persistent fibrosis.
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