Working memory training in young children with ADHD: a randomized placebo-controlled trial
SourceJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 55, 8, (2014), pp. 886-896
Article / Letter to editor
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PI Group Neuronal Oscillations
PI Group Memory and Emotion
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines
Subject160 000 Neuronal Oscillations; 160 038 Posterior alpha oscillations as an index; 160 044 Electrophysiological outcome of EEG-neurofeedback in a single-blind randomized placebocontrolled treatment study in ADHD children; Radboudumc 7: Neurodevelopmental disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
BACKGROUND: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) in young children with ADHD. METHODS: Fifty-one children (5-7 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD (without current psychotropic medication) were randomly assigned to the active (adaptive) or placebo (nonadaptive) training condition for 25 sessions during 5 weeks. The compliance criterion (>20 sessions) was met for 47 children. The primary outcome measure concerned the core behavioural symptoms of ADHD, measured with the ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS). Secondary outcome measures were neurocognitive functioning, daily executive functioning, and global clinical functioning. The influence of the increase in difficulty level (Index-Improvement) for the treatment group was also analysed. Clinical trial registration information - 'Working Memory Training in Young ADHD Children'; www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00819611. RESULTS: A significant improvement in favour of the active condition was found on a verbal working memory task (p = .041; adapted Digit Span WISC-III, backward condition). However, it did not survive correction for multiple testing. No significant treatment effect on any of the primary or other secondary outcome measurements was found. The Index-Improvement significantly contributed to ADHD-RS and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, both rated by the teacher, but revealed no significant group difference. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to find robust evidence for benefits of CMWT over the placebo training on behavioural symptoms, neurocognitive, daily executive, and global clinical functioning in young children with ADHD.
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