Resilient, overcontrolled and undercontrolled personality prototypes in childhood: Replicability, predictive power, and the trait/type issue
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 4, (1999), pp. 815-832
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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
In a longitudinal study, Q-sort patterns of German preschool children were analyzed for personality prototypes and related to developmental outcomes up to age 12. Q-factor analyses confirmed 3 prototypic patterns that showed a high continuity and cross-judge consistency; were similar to those found for North American, Dutch, and Icelandic children; and can be interpreted as resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled. Relations reported by R. W. Robins, O. P. John, A. Caspi, T. E. Moffitt, & M. Stouthamer-Loeber (1996) between these 3 patterns and the Big Five were fully replicated. Growth curve analyses showed that the 3 patterns predicted important developmental outcomes in both the social and the cognitive domains. Evidence was found for both traits and types: A continuous dimension of resiliency bifurcates in its lower part into two relatively discrete personality types, overcontrollers and undercontrollers.
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