Function and regulation of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger NCX3 splice variants in brain and skeletal muscle
SourceJournal of Biological Chemistry, 289, 16, (2014), pp. 11293-11303
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Biological Chemistry
SubjectRadboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 6: Metabolic Disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
Isoform 3 of the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX3) is crucial for maintaining intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) homeostasis in excitable tissues. In this sense NCX3 plays a key role in neuronal excitotoxicity and Ca(2+) extrusion during skeletal muscle relaxation. Alternative splicing generates two variants (NCX3-AC and NCX3-B). Here, we demonstrated that NCX3 variants display a tissue-specific distribution in mice, with NCX3-B as mostly expressed in brain and NCX-AC as predominant in skeletal muscle. Using Fura-2-based Ca(2+) imaging, we measured the capacity and regulation of the two variants during Ca(2+) extrusion and uptake in different conditions. Functional studies revealed that, although both variants are activated by intracellular sodium ([Na(+)]i), NCX3-AC has a higher [Na(+)]i sensitivity, as Ca(2+) influx is observed in the presence of extracellular Na(+). This effect could be partially mimicked for NCX3-B by mutating several glutamate residues in its cytoplasmic loop. In addition, NCX3-AC displayed a higher capacity of both Ca(2+) extrusion and uptake compared with NCX3-B, together with an increased sensitivity to intracellular Ca(2+). Strikingly, substitution of Glu(580) in NCX3-B with its NCX3-AC equivalent Lys(580) recapitulated the functional properties of NCX3-AC regarding Ca(2+) sensitivity, Lys(580) presumably acting through a structure stabilization of the Ca(2+) binding site. The higher Ca(2+) uptake capacity of NCX3-AC compared with NCX3-B is in line with the necessity to restore Ca(2+) levels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum during prolonged exercise. The latter result, consistent with the high expression in the slow-twitch muscle, suggests that this variant may contribute to the Ca(2+) handling beyond that of extruding Ca(2+).
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