mTOR- and HIF-1alpha-mediated aerobic glycolysis as metabolic basis for trained immunity
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SourceScience, 345, 6204, (2014), pp. 1250684
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 6: Metabolic Disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
Epigenetic reprogramming of myeloid cells, also known as trained immunity, confers nonspecific protection from secondary infections. Using histone modification profiles of human monocytes trained with the Candida albicans cell wall constituent beta-glucan, together with a genome-wide transcriptome, we identified the induced expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Trained monocytes display high glucose consumption, high lactate production, and a high ratio of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to its reduced form (NADH), reflecting a shift in metabolism with an increase in glycolysis dependent on the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) through a dectin-1-Akt-HIF-1alpha (hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha) pathway. Inhibition of Akt, mTOR, or HIF-1alpha blocked monocyte induction of trained immunity, whereas the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator metformin inhibited the innate immune response to fungal infection. Mice with a myeloid cell-specific defect in HIF-1alpha were unable to mount trained immunity against bacterial sepsis. Our results indicate that induction of aerobic glycolysis through an Akt-mTOR-HIF-1alpha pathway represents the metabolic basis of trained immunity.
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