Recent progress in migraine pathophysiology: role of cortical spreading depression and magnetic resonance imaging
SourceEuropean Journal of Neuroscience, 38, 11, (2013), pp. 3540-51
Article / Letter to editor
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European Journal of Neuroscience
SubjectIGMD 1: Functional imaging; NCMLS 2: Immune Regulation; ONCOL 5: Aetiology, screening and detection
Migraine is characterised by debilitating pain, which affects the quality of life in affected patients in both the western and the eastern worlds. The purpose of this article is to give a detailed outline of the pathophysiology of migraine pain, which is one of the most confounding pathologies among pain disorders in clinical conditions. We critically evaluate the scientific basis of various theories concerning migraine pathophysiology, and draw insights from brain imaging approaches that have unraveled the prevalence of cortical spreading depression (CSD) in migraine. The findings supporting the role of CSD as a physiological substrate in clinical pain are discussed. We also give an exhaustive overview of brain imaging approaches that have been employed to solve the genesis of migraine pain, and its possible links to the brainstem, the neocortex, genetic endophenotypes, and pathogenetic factors (such as dopaminergic hypersensitivity). Furthermore, a roadmap is proposed to provide a better understanding of pain pathophysiology in migraine, to enable the development of strategies using leads from brain imaging studies for the identification of early biomarkers, efficient prognosis, and treatment planning, which eventually may help in alleviating some of the devastating impact of pain morbidity in patients afflicted with migraine.
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