Complications of pacemaker therapy in adults with congenital heart disease: A multicenter study
SourceInternational Journal of Cardiology, 168, 4, (2013), pp. 3212-3216
Article / Letter to editor
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International Journal of Cardiology
SubjectNCEBP 14: Cardiovascular diseases
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate indications and complications of permanent cardiac pacing in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Two-hundred and seventy-four CHD patients were identified who underwent permanent pacemaker implantation between 1972 and 2009. The indication for pacing was acquired sinus node or AV node conduction disease (63%), sinus node or AV node conduction disease after cardiac surgery (28%), and drug/arrhythmia-related indications (9%). Patients with complex CHD received a pacemaker at younger age (23 versus 31years, p<0.0001) and more often received an epicardial pacing system (51% versus 23%, p<0.0001) compared to those with simple or moderate CHD. Twenty-nine patients (10.6%) had a periprocedural complication during the primary pacemaker implantation (general population: 5.2%). The most common acute complications were lead dysfunction (4.0%), bleeding (2.6%), pocket infection (1.5%) and pneumothorax (1.5%). During a median follow-up of 12years, pacemaker-related complications requiring intervention occurred in 95 patients (34.6%). The most common late pacemaker-related complications included lead failure (24.8%), pacemaker dysfunction/early battery depletion (5.1%), pacemaker migration (4.7%) and erosion (4.7%). Pacemaker implantation at younger age (<18years) was an independent predictor of late pacemaker-related complication (adjusted hazard ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 2.63, p=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of periprocedural complications seems higher in the CHD population compared to the general population and more than one-third of CHD patients encountered a pacemaker-related complication during long-term follow-up. This risk increases for those who receive a pacemaker at younger age.
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