1-Step Versus 2-Step Immobilization of Alkaline Phosphatase and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 onto Implant Surfaces Using Polydopamine
SourceTissue Engineering. Part C: Methods, 19, 8, (2013), pp. 610-619
Article / Letter to editor
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Tissue Engineering. Part C: Methods
SubjectNCMLS 3: Tissue engineering and pathology; ONCOL 3: Translational research NCMLS 2: Immune Regulation
Immobilization of biomolecules onto implant surfaces is highly relevant in many areas of biomaterial research. Recently, a 2-step immobilization procedure was developed for the facile conjugation of biomolecules onto various surfaces using self-polymerization of dopamine into polydopamine. In the current study, a 1-step polydopamine-based approach was applied for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilization, and compared to the conventional 2-step polydopamine-based immobilization and plain adsorption. To this end, ALP and BMP-2 were immobilized onto titanium and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. The absolute quantity and biological activity of immobilized ALP were assessed quantitatively to compare the three types of immobilization. Plain adsorption of both ALP and BMP-2 was inferior to both polydopamine-based immobilization approaches. ALP was successfully immobilized onto titanium and PTFE surfaces via the 1-step approach, and the immobilized ALP retained its enzymatic activity. Using the 1-step approach, the amount of immobilized ALP was increased twofold to threefold compared to the conventional 2-step immobilization process. In contrast, more BMP-2 was immobilized using the conventional 2-step immobilization approach. Retention of ALP and BMP-2 was measured over a period of 4 weeks and was found to be similar for the 1-step and 2-step methods and far superior to the retention of adsorbed biomolecules due to the formation of covalent linkages between catechol moieties and immobilized proteins. The biological behavior of ALP and BMP-2 coatings immobilized using polydopamine (1- and 2-step) as well as adsorption was assessed by culturing rat bone marrow cells, which revealed that the cell responses to the various experimental groups were not statistically different. In conclusion, the 1-step polydopamine-based immobilization method was shown to be more efficient for immobilization of ALP, whereas the conventional 2-step method was shown to be more efficient for attachment of BMP-2 onto implant surfaces.
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