Diurnal Rhythm rather than Dietary Iron Mediates Daily Hepcidin Variations
SourceClinical Chemistry, 59, 3, (2013), pp. 527-535
Article / Letter to editor
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Laboratory of Genetic, Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases
Epidemiology, Biostatistics & HTA
SubjectIGMD 5: Health aging / healthy living NCEBP 14: Cardiovascular diseases; IGMD 7: Iron metabolism; IGMD 7: Iron metabolism N4i 1: Pathogenesis and modulation of inflammation; IGMD 7: Iron metabolism ONCOL 5: Aetiology, screening and detection; N4i 1 - pathogenesis and modulation of inflammation Oncol 5 - Aetiology, screening and detection; NCEBP 2: Evaluation of complex medical interventions; Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences
BACKGROUND: The iron-regulating hormone hepcidin is a promising biomarker in the diagnosis of iron disorders. Concentrations of hepcidin have been shown to increase during the day in individuals who are following a regular diet. It is currently unknown whether these increases are determined by an innate rhythm or by other factors. We aimed to assess the effect of dietary iron on hepcidin concentrations during the day. METHODS: Within a 7-day interval, 32 volunteers received an iron-deficient diet on 1 day and the same diet supplemented with 65 mg ferrous fumarate at 0815 and 1145 on another day. Blood was drawn to assess ferritin, hepcidin-25, and transferrin saturation (TS) throughout both days at 4 time points between 0800 (fasted) and 1600. A linear mixed model for repeated data was used to analyze the effect of iron intake on TS and hepcidin concentrations. RESULTS: Baseline values of hepcidin at 0800 correlated significantly with ferritin (r = 0.61). During the day of an iron-deficient diet the mean TS was similar both in men and in women, whereas hepcidin increased. During the day with iron supplementation the mean TS was significantly higher both in men and in women, and the mean hepcidin was moderately but significantly higher in women (1.0 nmol/L, 95% CI, 0.2-1.8) but not in men (0.0 nmol/L, 95% CI, -0.8 to 0.8). CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that ferritin sets the basal hepcidin concentrations and suggest that innate diurnal rhythm rather than dietary iron mediates the daily hepcidin variations. These findings will be useful for optimizing sampling protocols and will facilitate the interpretation of hepcidin as an iron biomarker.
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