Cost-effectiveness of a team and leaders-directed strategy to improve nurses' adherence to hand hygiene guidelines: A cluster randomised trial
SourceInternational Journal of Nursing Studies, 50, 4, (2013), pp. 518-526
Article / Letter to editor
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Primary and Community Care
Preventative Restorative Dentistry
Epidemiology, Biostatistics & HTA
International Journal of Nursing Studies
SubjectNCEBP 2:Evaluation of complex medical interventions ONCOL 4:Quality of Care; NCEBP 4: Quality of hospital and integrated care; NCEBP 6: Quality of nursing and allied health care; NCEBP 6: Quality of nursing and allied health care ONCOL 4: Quality of Care; NCEBP 7: Effective primary care and public health; NCEBP 7: Effective primary care and public health N4i 1: Pathogenesis and modulation of inflammation; NCEBP 7: Effective primary care and public health N4i 1: Pathogenesis and modulation of inflammation
BACKGROUND: Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address poor hand hygiene compliance. Unfortunately, well-designed economic evaluations of hand hygiene improvement strategies are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of two successful implementation strategies for improving nurses' hand hygiene compliance and reducing hospital acquired infections (HAI's). DESIGN AND SETTING: A cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 67 nursing wards of three hospitals in the Netherlands. The evaluation used a hospital perspective. PARTICIPANTS: All affiliated nurses of the nursing wards. Wards were randomly assigned to either the control group (n=30) or the experimental group (n=37). METHODS: The control group received a state-of-the-art strategy including education, reminders feedback and optimising materials and facilities. The experimental group received a team and leaders-directed strategy which included all elements of the state-of-the-art strategy supplemented with interventions aimed at the social context of teams and enhancing leadership. The most efficient implementation strategy was determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per extra percentage of hand hygiene compliance gained and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per additional percentage reduction in the HAI rate. Bootstrap methods were used to determine confidence intervals for these incremental cost-effectiveness ratio's. Two scenarios of 15 and 30% were used to express the association between increased hand hygiene compliance and the reduction in HAIs. RESULTS: The team and leaders-directed strategy was significantly more effective in improving hand hygiene compliance. The mean difference effect was 8.91% (95% CI, 0.75-17.06). This extra increase was achieved at an average cost of euro5497 per ward. The incremental cost per extra percentage of hand hygiene gained on ward level was euro622. The incremental cost per additional percentage reduction in the HAI rate on ward level was euro2074 (30% scenario) and euro4125 (15% scenario). Within the 30% scenario, there is a probability of 90% that the team and leaders-directed strategy is cost-effective and within the 15% scenario, there is a probability of 70% that the team and leaders-directed strategy is cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Optimising hand hygiene compliance through a team and leaders-directed strategy is cost-effective as compared to a state-of-the-art strategy.
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