Urinary Bladder Cancer Susceptibility Markers. What Do We Know about Functional Mechanisms?
SourceInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 6, (2013), pp. 12346-12366
Article / Letter to editor
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Epidemiology, Biostatistics & HTA
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
SubjectNCEBP 1: Molecular epidemiology; NCEBP 1: Molecular epidemiology ONCOL 5: Aetiology, screening and detection; NCMLS 6: Genetics and epigenetic pathways of disease; NCMLS 6: Genetics and epigenetic pathways of disease; ONCOL 5: Aetiology, screening and detection
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in the identification of the several urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci, pointing towards novel genes involved in tumor development. Despite that, functional characterization of the identified variants remains challenging, as they mostly map to poorly understood, non-coding regions. Recently, two of the UBC risk variants (PSCA and UGT1A) were confirmed to have functional consequences. They were shown to modify bladder cancer risk by influencing gene expression in an allele-specific manner. Although the role of the other UBC risk variants is unknown, it can be hypothesized-based on studies from different cancer types-that they influence cancer susceptibility by alterations in regulatory networks. The insight into UBC heritability gained through GWAS and further functional studies can impact on cancer prevention and screening, as well as on the development of new biomarkers and future personalized therapies.
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