The distribution and function of chondroitin sulfate and other sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the human bladder and their contribution to the protective bladder barrier
SourceJournal of Urology, 189, 1, (2013), pp. 336-42
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Urology
SubjectDCN PAC - Perception action and control; NCMLS 3: Tissue engineering and pathology; ONCOL 3: Translational research NCMLS 6: Genetics and epigenetic pathways of disease
PURPOSE: Glycosaminoglycan replenishment therapies are commonly applied to treat bladder inflammatory conditions such as bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Although there is evidence that these therapies are clinically effective, much is still unknown about the location and function of different types of glycosaminoglycans in the bladder. We investigated the location of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the bladder and evaluated their contribution to the urothelial barrier. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The location of different glycosaminoglycans (heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate) in human and porcine bladders was investigated with immunofluorescence staining and isolating glycosaminoglycans using selective urothelial sampling techniques. Barrier function was evaluated with transepithelial electrical resistance measurements (Omega.cm(2)) on primary porcine urothelial cell cultures. The contribution of different glycosaminoglycans to the bladder barrier was investigated with specific glycosaminoglycan digesting enzymes and protamine. RESULTS: High glycosaminoglycan concentrations are located around the urothelial basal membrane and at the urothelial luminal surface. After removing the glycosaminoglycan layer, urothelial permeability increased. Natural recovery of the glycosaminoglycan layer takes less than 24 hours. Chondroitin sulfate was the only sulfated glycosaminoglycan that was located on the urothelial luminal surface and that contributed to urothelial barrier function. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals an important role for chondroitin sulfate in bladder barrier function. Therapies aiming at restoring the luminal glycosaminoglycan layer in pathological conditions such as bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis are based on a sound principle.
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