Current approaches to bone-targeted therapy in genitourinary malignancies
SourceTherapeutic Advances in Urology, 4, 5, (2012), pp. 219-232
Article / Letter to editor
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Therapeutic Advances in Urology
SubjectONCOL 3: Translational research; ONCOL 5: Aetiology, screening and detection; ONCOL 5: Aetiology, screening and detection
Bone metastases in patients with genitourinary cancers are associated with increased risk for skeletal-related events including pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, and the requirement for surgery or palliative radiotherapy to bone. The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate zoledronic acid and the monoclonal antibody against RANK, denosumab, are approved for the prevention of skeletal-related events in genitourinary cancers. These agents have different mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetic profiles, and while both are effective in reducing the risk of skeletal-related events, other clinical effects differ. There is evidence for direct and indirect anticancer activity with zoledronic acid from preclinical studies and emerging data from clinical studies suggesting an effect on patient survival. Potential anticancer mechanisms include inhibition of angiogenesis, enhanced immune surveillance via stimulation of gammadelta T cells, and reduction of circulating tumor cells. A synergistic effect of chemotherapy plus zoledronic acid has also been suggested. Further research is ongoing regarding the roles of these antiresorptive therapies in patients with bone metastases or at high risk for malignant spread to skeletal sites.
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