Update on Kleefstra Syndrome
SourceMolecular Syndromology, 2, 3-5, (2012), pp. 202-212
Article / Letter to editor
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Primary and Community Care
SubjectIGMD 3: Genomic disorders and inherited multi-system disorders; NCEBP 7: Effective primary care and public health; NCMLS 6: Genetics and epigenetic pathways of disease DCN MP - Plasticity and memory
Kleefstra syndrome is characterized by the core phenotype of developmental delay/intellectual disability, (childhood) hypotonia and distinct facial features. The syndrome can be either caused by a microdeletion in chromosomal region 9q34.3 or by a mutation in the euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene. Since the early 1990s, 85 patients have been described, of which the majority had a 9q34.3 microdeletion (>85%). So far, no clear genotype-phenotype correlation could be observed by studying the clinical and molecular features of both 9q34.3 microdeletion patients and patients with an intragenic EHMT1 mutation. Thus, to further expand the genotypic and phenotypic knowledge about the syndrome, we here report 29 newly diagnosed patients, including 16 patients with a 9q34.3 microdeletion and 13 patients with an EHMT1 mutation, and review previous literature. The present findings are comparable to previous reports. In addition to our former findings and recommendations, we suggest cardiac screening during follow-up, because of the possible occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. In addition, clinicians and caretakers should be aware of the regressive behavioral phenotype that might develop at adolescent/adult age and seems to have no clear neurological substrate, but is rather a so far unexplained neuropsychiatric feature.
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