Symptomatic overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder in women: the role of temperament and character traits.
until further notice
SourceComprehensive Psychiatry, 53, 1, (2012), pp. 39-47
01 januari 2012
Article / Letter to editor
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PI Group Memory & Emotion
F.C. Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging
SubjectDCN PAC - Perception action and control; DCN PAC - Perception action and control NCEBP 9 - Mental health; Principles of Public Law; NCEBP 9: Mental health; Grondslagen van het publiekrecht
OBJECTIVE: There is substantial symptomatic overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adults, but the nature of the relationship between these disorders needs further clarification. The role of temperament and character traits in the differentiation of classes of patients with similar ADHD and BPD symptom profiles was examined and possible pathways between early temperament and future ADHD and/or BPD were hypothesized. METHODS: Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted in 103 female patients to assess current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition symptoms of ADHD and BPD, and parent interviews were used to assess ADHD symptoms in childhood. Classes of subjects with homogeneous symptom profiles were identified using latent class analysis. Temperament and character traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory of Cloninger et al; scores were then compared across the latent classes. RESULTS: Latent class analysis revealed 4 mutually exclusive classes of patients: 1 with only ADHD symptoms; 1 with BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity; 1 with BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; and 1 with BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity. High Novelty Seeking was found in all classes except for the class with symptoms of BPD and only the hyperactivity aspect of ADHD. The highest Novelty Seeking temperament scores were found in that class of patients with both symptoms of BPD and symptoms in all areas of ADHD. High Harm Avoidance, low Cooperativeness, and low Self-directedness were specifically related to classes containing BPD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Classes of ADHD and BPD symptoms are associated with specific temperament and character configurations. Novelty Seeking was associated with the inattention symptoms of ADHD. An outspoken Novelty Seeking temperament suggests vulnerability for the development of ADHD and co-occurring BPD. Contrary to patients with combined ADHD and BPD symptoms, patients with only symptoms of ADHD showed normal character development and thus an absence of a personality disorder. Assessment of temperament and character traits can improve our understanding of the complex relationship between ADHD and BPD.
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