Saponin-based adjuvants create a highly effective anti-tumor vaccine when combined with in situ tumor destruction.
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SourceVaccine, 30, 4, (2012), pp. 737-44
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectNCMLS 2: Immune Regulation; ONCOL 3: Translational research NCMLS 2: Immune Regulation
Today's most commonly used microbial vaccines are essentially composed of antigenic elements and a non-microbial adjuvant, and induce solid amounts of antibodies. Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce anti-tumor CTL-responses, which require cross-presentation of tumor-derived antigens by dendritic cells (DCs). Adjuvants that improve DC function and antigen cross-presentation are therefore advantageous for inducing anti-tumor immunity. Previously, we have reported that in situ tumor destruction of established murine tumors by ablation efficiently delivers antigens to DC for the in vivo induction of anti-tumor immunity. Yet, tumor ablation alone resulted in only partial protection against a subsequent tumor-challenge. In this article, the ability of various non-microbial vaccine adjuvants to modulate the immune response following cryo-ablation was tested. The data show that tumor ablation with co-injection of saponin-based adjuvants, but not oil-in-water, water-in-oil or alum-based adjuvants, creates a highly effective in situ vaccine. Draining lymph node CD11c+ DCs acquire antigens more efficiently and become increasingly activated following ablation with saponin adjuvants relative to ablation alone. Moreover, our data reveal that the saponin-based adjuvants facilitate an in this model unprecedented level of antigen cross-presentation, induction of tumor-specific CTL and long-lasting tumor protection. Collectively, combining saponin-based adjuvants with in situ tumor destruction leads to an extremely potent systemic anti-tumor response. This combination approach forms a powerful in situ DC vaccine for which no prior knowledge of tumor antigens is required. As saponin-based adjuvants are currently clinically available, they represent attractive tools for various human and veterinary settings where in situ tumor destruction is applied.
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