Risk factors for undescended testis.
SourceJournal of Pediatric Urology, 8, 1, (2012), pp. 59-66
1 februari 2012
Article / Letter to editor
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Epidemiology, Biostatistics & HTA
Journal of Pediatric Urology
SubjectNCEBP 12: Human Reproducion IGMD 3: Genomic disorders and inherited multi-system disorders; NCEBP 12: Human Reproduction ONCOL 5: Aetiology, screening and detection; NCMLS 3: Tissue engineering and pathology; NCMLS 3: Tissue engineering and pathology IGMD 9: Renal disorder; NCEBP 2: Evaluation of complex medical interventions ONCOL 5: Aetiology, screening and detection
OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and 629 boys with persistent middle ear effusion. Risk factor data were obtained by postal questionnaires to both parents. Clinical data were collected from medical files. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: The main findings include associations between UDT and familial occurrence of the disorder: OR 3.1 (95%CI 1.9-4.9), low birth weight: 2.2 (1.1-4.3), twinning: 2.2 (0.9-5.4), gestational preeclampsia: 1.9 (0.8-4.4), use of oral contraceptives after conception: 3.6 (1.0-12.5), in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment: 2.2 (0.8-6.0), paternal subfertility: 1.8 (0.8-4.1), and maternal occupational exposure to cosmetics: 3.0 (0.9-10.0). Subgroup analyses indicated differences in ORs for several factors between cases with (n = 92) and without (n = 103) inguinal hernia or hydrocele. CONCLUSION: The findings point towards a role for genetic predisposition, placental insufficiency, and possibly exposure to specific endocrine disrupting substances in the etiology of UDT. Further research should take into account potential etiologic differences between subgroups of cases with UDT.
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