Long-term follow-up of a randomised controlled trial of azathioprine/methylprednisolone versus cyclophosphamide in patients with proliferative lupus nephritis.
SourceAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 71, 6, (2012), pp. 966-973
1 juni 2012
Article / Letter to editor
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Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
SubjectN4i 4: Auto-immunity, transplantation and immunotherapy; NCMLS 1: Infection and autoimmunity N4i 4: Auto-immunity, transplantation and immunotherapy
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to analyse the long-term follow-up of a randomised controlled trial of induction treatment with azathioprine/methylprednisolone (AZA/MP) versus high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (ivCY) in patients with proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) and to evaluate the predictive value of clinical, laboratory and renal biopsy parameters regarding renal outcome. METHODS: 87 patients with biopsy-proven proliferative LN were treated with either AZA/MP (n=37) or ivCY (n=50), both with oral prednisone. After 2 years, renal biopsy was repeated, and all patients continued with AZA/oral prednisone. The primary study end point was sustained doubling of serum creatinine. Secondary end points included renal relapse, end-stage renal disease and mortality. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 9.6 years, no significant differences between AZA/MP versus ivCY groups were found in the proportion of patients with sustained doubling of serum creatinine (n=6 (16%) vs n=4 (8%); p=0.313), end-stage renal disease (n=2 (5%) vs n=2 (4%); p=1.000) or mortality (n=6 (16%) vs n=5 (10%); p=0.388). Renal relapses occurred more often in the AZA/MP group (n=14 (38%) vs n=5 (10%); p=0.002, HR: 4.5). Serum creatinine, proteinuria and immunosuppressive treatment regimens at the last follow-up were comparable. Clinical and laboratory parameters at baseline and after 2 years, and renal biopsy parameters (only) at baseline predicted renal outcome. CONCLUSION: Induction treatment with ivCY was superior to AZA/MP in preventing renal relapses, but other parameters for renal function did not differ. AZA/MP can therefore serve as an alternative in patients with proliferative LN who wish to avoid gonadal toxicity of CY. Several prognostic factors of long-term renal outcome were identified.
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